In the Big Bang the creation of matter begins. It undergoes four
stages of creation until it reaches the formation of planets.
The Big Bang is the first act of creation. In a one time
creational explosion hydrogen and to a lesser degree helium are
created and constitute the primal matter from which all other
Quasars are the beginning of galaxy formation and constitute
the second stage of creation. In continuous creation the Quasars
produce new hydrogen and helium, which is mixed with the
hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang and galaxies develop.
Stars are formed and the process towards higher evolution of
matter is under way.
The third stage of creation is reached with the explosions of
stars, which create more highly evolved matter. The explosions
of smaller stars create elements up to the density of iron. The
explosions of big stars, called supernovae, create the heavy
elements and additional hydrogen and helium.
Dust from exploded stars and primal matter, hydrogen and
helium, constitute the material from which planets form. Centers
of gravity, which attract dust and primal matter, develop around
one or several stars and planetary systems come into existence.
This is the fourth stage of creation.
Aggregating dust particles and gas become concentrated in local
centers of gravity. This results in the formation of planets and,
possibly, of moons in orbit around planets. Heat and pressure in the
interior of these centers of gravity fuse particles into matter, as
we know it. The most common heavy element, iron, becomes the core of
planets. Volcanic activity and lava flows create the crust and bring
gases to the surface.
Once matter on the surface has formed a crust an atmosphere is
created. On some planets over very lengthy periods of time a variety
of life forms develop. Evolution leads some of such forms to reach
the level of intelligence. (1)
There are two kinds of moons. The first kind evolves in parallel
with a planet it orbits. The mass of such a moon is big enough to
experience the same kind of the evolution of matter as a planet. If
the planet explodes the orbital lock is lifted and such a moon can
get an orbit of its own appearing to be a small planet. This is the
case with Mars. It started as a moon of a huge planet, which
exploded. The remnants of this planet are the asteroids, the moons,
the meteors, the comets and the rings of matter around the gas
Mars provides a wealth of information telling of a catastrophe of
unimaginable proportions. Its Southern Hemisphere has a feature
called the Line of Dichotomy at about 35 degrees from the equator.
From there to the South Pole the surface of Mars on average is 30
kilometers higher than the northern half of Mars. This surface is so
heavily cratered that many craters overlap. In contrast, the north
is mostly flat and has very few craters.
Between the line of Dichotomy and the South Pole the surface of
Mars consists mainly of matter found in the mantle and in the core
of planets, iron and sulfur. Oxidation of this abundant iron ore is
the cause of the red color of the Mars landscape. Additionally,
olivine, another type of matter typically existing in the interior
of planets, is found in abundance to the south of the Line of
Dichotomy. It is clear that this type of matter and this kind of
cratering has been produced by the explosion of a relatively near by
Jupiter's moon Io and Mars have something in common. They both
have uplifts - bulges - 180 degrees apart around the longitudinal
circumference of the planet. These were formed through gravitational
influences coming from the huge companion planet. Another feature of
Mars confirming the influence of an exceedingly strong gravitational
pull is the Valles Marineris, a trough extending one quarter of its
circumference. As the moon Mars orbited the planet water rushed
through this valley forth and back in response to the planet's
gravitational pull. It's high speed and its scrubbing action
radically deepened the valley to a depth of about 7 kilometers, the
deepest canyon in the Solar System.
There is much more to be said about this fascinating situation
but this, by far, would exceed the scope of this article. Anyone
interested to read in depth about the tidal theory of Mars should
read the brilliantly written Abstract presented by Richard C.
Hoagland, Principal Investigator of the Enterprise Mission, and by
Michael Bara, Executive Director, Formal Action Committee on
Extraterrestrial Studies. The Study is called "A new model of
Mars as a former captured satellite: Bi-Modal distribution of key
features due to ancient tidal stress". A plethora of references
are added to the Abstract. (2)
The second kind of moon originates in the destruction of the
planet it orbits. This might happen because of a catastrophic
collision with another cosmic body or as the result of a run-away
explosion of a super volcano. Fact is, we don't know enough to even
theorize about such an event. We just know that such an event is the
end of all life on a planet. It is the fifth stage of creation,
which produces nothing but lifeless matter without any chance of
When a planet's matter is driven apart by the force of an
explosion moons, meteors, asteroids, comets and rings of matter
around other planets come into existence. These new cosmic bodies
are as divers as the planet's matter they originated from. This kind
of moons will not evolve any further because they are not big enough
to provide the heat and the pressure necessary to start another
process of evolution.
From the example of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn we know that
depending on the origin of their matter in the exploded planet these
moons vary widely in their composition and sometimes in shape.
Jupiter's moon Amalthea is the best proof of a moon, which
originated from the crust of a planet. Basically it is a huge rock,
which probably is a former mountain range. It is long, irregular in
shape and clearly shows that it has not formed from dust matter in
space, which would have resulted in a sphere. Also, its matter could
not have formed in space because the moon is not big enough to
provide the heat and the pressure needed for matter to evolve from
dust produced in a nova or supernova explosion.
Jupiter's moon Europa is a huge ball of ice. It only could have
originated from a former ocean of the exploded planet. Water cannot
form in space all by itself.
Jupiter's moon Callisto is a mixture of rock and water. Even if
Callisto were big enough to provide the pressure and heat needed for
the evolution of matter its ratio of rocks and water could not have
been created in space. Clearly, Callisto is a former shoreline,
which took rocks and water into space.
Jupiter's moon Io and Saturn's moon Titan are similar in
composition. Obviously, they originated from the mantle and core of
the exploded planet and, therefore they both have a lot of volcanic
activity. Io's gravity is too weak to allow the formation of an
atmosphere from the gases released in volcanic eruptions. Titan's
gravity is strong enough to keep the gases emitted by volcanic
activity from escaping into space and over time an atmosphere
We could go on discussing each moon but this would be a
repetitive task. The above samples clearly show that the moons from
the fifth stage of creation originated in the explosion of a planet
and, therefore, are composed of evolved matter with no further
Asteroids, rings of matter, and meteors
have the same composition, which can be divided in three main
categories: iron from the core of a planet, igneous rocks and rocks
from the crust of a planet. The asteroids occupy the plane where the
exploded planet orbited. The rings of matter exist in the equatorial
planes of gas planets and meteors move in irregular orbits of their
own through the Solar System. (3)
Meteors can be lone, erratic wanderers or they come in so-called
meteor showers. Of these the "Near Earth Orbit" class of
meteors are the ones of most interest to us. There are three main
showers called the Leonids, the Amor and the Apollo showers. Of
these more than 500 meteors of the Apollo group with a diameter of
more than 1 kilometer have been catalogued to date and it is
estimated that there are more than 1000 such meteors in Earth orbit
can be large balls of pure water ice or consist of water ice with
inclusions of rocks, sand and soil depending on the points of origin
in an ocean or in an ocean near a coastline. Comets like meteors
move through the Solar System in irregular orbits. As they approach
the Sun water ice evaporates and forms the comet's tail, which
always points away from the Sun regardless of its trajectory. If
there is soil and sand from of a coastline present a comet will
display two tails, as water vapor and soil/sand are influenced
differently by the solar wind.
Every time a comet approaches the Sun it loses part of its
matter. If it consists purely of water ice it eventually will
completely disintegrate and cease to exist. If the comet consists of
water ice and a central rock the water ice eventually will evaporate
and the comet turns into a meteor.
In ancient times comets and meteors were thought to be harbingers
of doom and people thought that they would bring death and
destruction. The planet moving through the tail of a comet has been
reported to bring illness, poisoning of crops and foul water. Only
recently science found out that the ancients were not superstitious.
They just described the terrible experiences the encounters with
such harbingers of doom were. (4)
with the potential of horrendous loss of life and property occur
when meteors or comets strike this planet. Science assumes that
meteors in sizes up to 10 meters evaporate in the atmosphere without
doing any harm. Meteors in sizes between 10 and 300 meters are
thought to explode upon entry in the Earth atmosphere and cause
widespread damage. Meteors with diameters of more than 300 meters
will hit the Earth and wreak havoc on life land. (5)
Meteor strikes on land produce very different effects than
meteors plunging into an ocean. When a meteor hits land most of the
energy spent will create a huge crater and the force of the ensuing
explosion will inject a tremendous amount of dust into the
atmosphere. This dust will circle the globe for years and produce an
effect like the so-called nuclear winter expected after many massive
nuclear explosions. The impact will produce violent earthquakes all
over the globe and many volcanoes will erupt increasing the dust in
the atmosphere further with a considerable amount of more dust.
Temperatures will drop considerably worldwide.
A meteor of about 1 km in diameter is estimated to explode with
the energy of approximately 1 million hydrogen bombs of 1 megaton.
Total destruction through heat and pressure waves would extend over
hundreds of kilometers depending on the meteor's density and on the
angle and speed of the impact. Devastation could be continent wide.
If a meteor with a diameter of 10 km or more hits land the
released energy would be in the range of a billion hydrogen bombs of
one megaton or more. At 2000 km from the point of impact the wind
velocity is estimated to still be 2400 km/h and the increase in air
temperature is estimated at close to 500 degree Celsius. At 10.000
km the respective values are estimated to be 100 k/h winds and a
raise in temperature of 30 degrees Celsius lasting for 14 hours.
Total destruction could encompass the entire hemisphere where the
Most of this planet's surface is covered by water. The
probability for a hit in an ocean is approximately 3:1. Aside from a
hit on a continental shelf where the earth crust is estimated at 35
km a hit in an ocean where the crust is only about 2.5 km produces
very different effects than a hit on land. A huge amount of water is
ejected into the atmosphere, which will rain out for weeks after the
impact producing the kind of rain reported in the Bible and the epic
Even a small impact in an ocean will produce gigantic waves,
which will circle the entire globe. A big impact can create waves up
to a mile high, which carry utter devastation far into continents
the world over. The ocean floor will be penetrated and for weeks
after the cataclysm lava will flow out increasing temperatures
worldwide. This scenario allows for only a comparatively moderate
amount of dust to be injected into the atmosphere. In both cases the
tilt of the Earth axis, reversal of polarity resulting in a reversal
of the Earth's rotation and in case of a very big hit even a change
in orbit can ensue.
Emilio Spedicato of the University of Bergamo in Italy wrote an
excellent abstract, which contains much very detailed information as
well as an abundance of further references dealing with this topic.
The fossil record clearly shows 5 major extinctions after which
life had to evolve anew under different circumstances. The last big
extinction ended the era of the dinosaurs 67 million years ago. The
culprit was a meteor of approximately 15 km in diameter, which hit
the planet in the area of the Yucatan peninsula forming the
Chicxulub crater. (6)
More localized events end civilizations like the hit, which ended
the Sumerian epoch in Mesopotamia around 2100 BC. At the same time
the era of the Old Kingdom ended in Egypt, Crete was destroyed and
there are craters elsewhere dating back to this time like one big
crater in Argentina. The Australian aborigines tell of a time when
fireballs fell from the sky and the air was unbearably hot. If there
is indeed a timely connection between these events then it is likely
that the culprit was not a meteor but a comet. (7)
Meteors are like a bomb dropped on one place. Comets bring death
and destruction over very wide areas. If the core of the comet
impacting the Earth is a rock then the effect is like a bomb in the
center of the hit but devastation can spread over the entire globe.
Chunks of rocks from the comet's halo, pieces of ice broken from the
comet's core upon entry into the atmosphere and poisonous fumes
affect large areas to a varying degree depending on the distribution
of the cosmic missiles.
In recent years science accepted the fact that there was a
connection between the demise of entire civilizations like the
Sumerian and impacts by meteors or comets. Science now assumes hits
on the planet in intervals, which get increasingly larger with the
size of the impacting cosmic body. A number of times the planet was
hit so hard that up to 90% of all species died out. But there are
threats out there so huge that all life on Earth would cease if they
collided with this planet. - One Amor type meteor named Ganymed is
39 km in diameter. A hit would be a global catastrophe and yet there
could worse. (8)
Comets spend a very long time exposed to radiation in space. One
theory has it that this causes changes in the atomic structure of
the water and transforms it into "heavy" water. This
essentially would make the comet a huge mass of fusion fuel.
Entering the Earth atmosphere could ignite nuclear processes and an
atomic bomb of unimaginable proportions would explode. This event,
for sure, could destroy all life on this planet. (9)
We have two impacts in recent memory: the Tunguska event, which
was the explosion of a meteor estimated at a diameter of about 160
meters, and the Peshtigo fire, which seems to have been a hit by a
small comet and its accompanying rocks. Luckily, the Tunguska meteor
exploded over an uninhabited area in Siberia. Had it arrived a few
hours later it would have brought utter devastation in Central
Europe with the possible loss of millions of lives. (10)
We have no record of a major impact since the
cataclysm that destroyed the Sumerian civilization 4200 years ago.
Looking at the list of recorded impacts over the last 10,000 years
it is obvious that we were very lucky. But our luck can and will run
out at some time.
(1) Rich Anders, God's Ultimate Task, richanders.com
(2) http://www.enterprisemission.com/tides.html (3) Rich Anders, The Great Mysteries, richanders.com
(4) keyword SIS, Society for Interdisciplinary Studies; other links;
3, Dangers of
NEOs; Apollo objects, Atlantis and other tales. Emilio Spedicato,
(6) keyword: chicxulub
(7) The Telegraph (UK) 11-04-2001, Robert Matthews
(9) AUP, comets: Dirty Snow Bombs, Mike Johnston,
(10) discoverynews.com, March 13, 2004
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