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Ancient Writings - By Region
Foundation for Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc (FAMSI),
Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphic Writing:
Golden Temple, Amritsar, India
(Photograph courtesy of www.sacredsites.com
and Martin Gray)
1. The Brahma-students say: Is Brahman the cause? Whence are we born? Whereby
do we live, and whither do we go? O ye who know Brahman, (tell us) at whose
command we abide, whether in pain or in pleasure?
2. Should time, or nature, or necessity, or chance, or the elements be
considered as the cause, or he who is called the person (purusha, vigńânâtmâ)?
It cannot be their union either, because that is not self-dependent, and the
self also is powerless, because there is (independent of him) a cause of good
3. The sages, devoted to meditation and concentration, have seen the power
belonging to God himself, hidden in its own qualities (guna). He, being one,
superintends all those causes, time, self, and the rest.
4. We meditate on him who (like a wheel) has one felly with three tires,
sixteen ends, fifty spokes, with twenty counter-spokes, and six sets of eight;
whose one rope is manifold, who proceeds on three different roads, and whose
illusion arises from two causes.
5. We meditate on the river whose water consists of the five streams,
which is wild and winding with its five springs, whose waves are the five vital
breaths, whose fountain head is the mind, the course of the five kinds of
perceptions. It has five whirlpools, its rapids are the five pains; it has fifty
kinds of suffering, and five branches.
6. In that vast Brahma-wheel, in which all things live and rest, the bird
flutters about, so long as he thinks that the self (in him) is different from
the mover (the god, the lord). When he has been blessed by him, then he gains
7. But what is praised (in the Upanishads) is the Highest Brahman, and in it
there is the triad. The Highest Brahman is the safe support, it is imperishable.
The Brahma-students, when they have known what is within this (world), are
devoted and merged in the Brahman, free from birth.
8. The Lord (îsa) supports all this together, the perishable and the
imperishable, the developed and the undeveloped. The (living) self, not being a
lord, is bound, because he has to enjoy (the fruits of works); but when he has
known the god (deva), he is freed from all fetters.
9. There are two, one knowing (îsvara), the other not-knowing (gîva), both
unborn, one strong, the other weak; there is she, the unborn, through whom each
man receives the recompense of his works; and there is the infinite Self
(appearing) under all forms, but himself inactive. When a man finds out these
three, that is Brahma.
10. That which is perishable is the Pradhâna (the first), the immortal and
imperishable is Hara. The one god rules the perishable (the pradhâna) and the
(living) self. From meditating on him, from joining him, from becoming one with
him there is further cessation of all illusion in the end.
11. When that god is known, all fetters fall off, sufferings are destroyed,
and birth and death cease. From meditating on him there arises, on the
dissolution of the body, the third state, that of universal lordship; but he
only who is alone, is satisfied.
12. This, which rests eternally within the self, should be known; and beyond
this not anything has to be known. By knowing the enjoyer, the enjoyed, and the
ruler, everything has been declared to be threefold, and this is Brahman.
13. As the form of fire, while it exists in the under-wood, is not seen, nor
is its seed destroyed, but it has to be seized again and again by means of the
stick and the under-wood, so it is in both cases, and the Self has to be seized
in the body by means of the pranava (the syllable Om).
14. By making his body the under-wood, and the syllable Om the upper-wood,
man, after repeating the drill of meditation, will perceive the bright god, like
the spark hidden in the wood.
15. As oil in seeds, as butter in cream, as water in (dry) river-beds, as
fire in wood, so is the Self seized within the self, if man looks for him by
truthfulness and penance;
16. (If he looks) for the Self that pervades everything, as butter is
contained in milk, and the roots whereof are self-knowledge and penance. That is
the Brahman taught by the Upanishad.
1. Savitri (the sun), having first collected his mind and expanded his
thoughts, brought Agni (fire), when he had discovered his light, above the
2. With collected minds we are at the command of the divine Savitri, that we
may obtain blessedness.
3. May Savitri, after he has reached with his mind the gods as they rise up
to the sky, and with his thoughts (has reached) heaven, grant these gods to make
a great light to shine.
4. The wise sages of the great sage collect their mind and collect their
thoughts. He who alone knows the law (Savitri) has ordered the invocations;
great is the praise of the divine Savitri.
5. Your old prayer has to be joined with praises. Let my song go forth like
the path of the sun! May all the sons of the Immortal listen, they who have
reached their heavenly homes.
6. Where the fire is rubbed, where the wind is checked, where the Soma flows
over, there the mind is born.
7. Let us love the old Brahman by the grace of Savitri; if thou make thy
dwelling there, the path will not hurt thee.
8. If a wise man hold his body with its three erect parts (chest, neck, and
head) even, and turn his senses with the mind towards the heart, he will then in
the boat of Brahman cross all the torrents which cause fear.
9. Compressing his breathings let him, who has subdued all motions, breathe
forth through the nose with gentle breath. Let the wise man without fail
restrain his mind, that chariot yoked with vicious horses.
10. Let him perform his exercises in a place level, pure, free from pebbles,
fire, and dust, delightful by its sounds, its water, and bowers, not painful to
the eye, and full of shelters and caves.
11. When Yoga is being performed, the forms which come first, producing
apparitions in Brahman, are those of misty smoke, sun, fire, wind, fire-flies,
lightnings, and a crystal moon.
12. When, as earth, water, light, heat, and ether arise, the fivefold quality
of Yoga takes place, then there is no longer illness, old age, or pain for him
who has obtained a body, produced by the fire of Yoga.
13. The first results of Yoga they call lightness, healthiness, steadiness, a
good complexion, an easy pronunciation, a sweet odour, and slight excretions.
14. As a metal disk (mirror), tarnished by dust, shines bright again after it
has been cleaned, so is the one incarnate person satisfied and free from grief,
after he has seen the real nature of the Self.
15. And when by means of the real nature of his self he sees, as by a lamp,
the real nature of Brahman, then having known the unborn, eternal god, who is
beyond all natures, he is freed from all fetters.
16. He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as
Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He
stands behind all persons, looking everywhere.
17. The god who is in the fire, the god who is in the water, the god who has
entered into the whole world, the god who is in plants, the god who is in trees,
adoration be to that god, adoration!
1. The snarer who rules alone by his powers, who rules all the worlds by his
powers, who is one and the same, while things arise and exist,--they who know
this are immortal.
2. For there is one Rudra only, they do not allow a second, who rules all the
worlds by his powers. He stands behind all persons, and after having created all
worlds he, the protector, rolls it up at the end of time.
3. That one god, having his eyes, his face, his arms, and his feet in every
place, when producing heaven and earth, forges them together with his arms and
4. He, the creator and supporter of the gods, Rudra, the great seer, the lord
of all, he who formerly gave birth to Hiranyagarbha, may he endow us with good
5. O Rudra, thou dweller in the mountains, look upon us with that most
blessed form of thine which is auspicious, not terrible, and reveals no evil!
6. O lord of the mountains, make lucky that arrow which thou, a dweller in
the mountains, holdest in thy hand to shoot. Do not hurt man or beast!
7. Those who know beyond this the High Brahman, the vast, hidden in the
bodies of all creatures, and alone enveloping everything, as the Lord, they
8. I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike lustre beyond the darkness
6. A man who knows him truly, passes over death; there is no other path to go.
9. This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is
nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is
nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky.
10. That which is beyond this world is without form and without suffering.
They who know it, become immortal, but others suffer pain indeed.
11. That Bhagavat exists in the faces, the heads, the necks of all, he dwells
in the cave (of the heart) of all beings, he is all-pervading, therefore he is
the omnipresent Siva.
12. That person (purusha) is the great lord; he is the mover of existence, he
possesses that purest power of reaching everything, he is light, he is
13. The person (purusha), not larger than a thumb, dwelling within, always
dwelling in the heart of man, is perceived by the heart, the thought 1, the
mind; they who know it become immortal.
14. The person (purusha) with a thousand heads. a thousand eyes, a thousand
feet, having compassed the earth on every side, extends beyond it by ten
15. That person alone (purusha) is all this, what has been and what will be;
he is also the lord of immortality; he is whatever grows by food.
16. Its hands and feet are everywhere, its eyes and head are everywhere, its
ears are everywhere, it stands encompassing all in the world.
17. Separate from all the senses, yet reflecting the qualities of all the
senses, it is the lord and ruler of all, it is the great refuge of all.
18. The embodied spirit within the town with nine gates 6, the bird, flutters
outwards, the ruler of the whole world, of all that rests and of all that moves.
19. Grasping without hands, hasting without feet, he sees without eyes, he
hears without ears. He knows what can be known, but no one knows him; they call
him the first, the great person (purusha).
20. The Self, smaller than small, greater than great, is hidden in the heart
of the creature. A man who has left all grief behind, sees the majesty, the
Lord, the passionless, by the grace of the creator (the Lord).
21. I know this undecaying, ancient one, the self of all things, being
infinite and omnipresent. They declare that in him all birth is stopped, for the
Brahma-students proclaim him to be eternal.
1. He, the sun, without any colour, who with set purpose 1 by means of his
power (sakti) produces endless colours, in whom all this comes together in the
beginning, and comes asunder in the end--may he, the god, endow us with good
2. That (Self) indeed is Agni (fire), it is Âditya (sun), it is Vâyu (wind),
it is Kandramas (moon); the same also is the starry firmament, it is Brahman (Hiranyagarbha),
it is water, it is Pragâpati (Virâg).
3. Thou art woman, thou art man; thou art youth, thou art maiden; thou, as an
old man, totterest along on thy staff; thou art born with thy face turned
4. Thou art the dark-blue bee, thou art the green parrot with red eyes, thou
art the thunder-cloud, the seasons, the seas. Thou art without beginning,
because thou art infinite, thou from whom all worlds are born.
5. There is one unborn being (female), red, white, and black, uniform, but
producing manifold offspring. There is one unborn being (male) who loves her and
lies by her; there is another who leaves her, while she is eating what has to be
6. Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to the same tree. One of them eats
the sweet fruit, the other looks on without eating.
7. On the same tree man sits grieving, immersed, bewildered, by his own
impotence (an-îsâ). But when he sees the other lord (îsa) contented, and knows
his glory, then his grief passes away.
8. He who does not know that indestructible being of the Rig-Veda, that
highest ether-like (Self) wherein all the gods reside, of what use is the
Rig-Veda to him? Those only who know it, rest contented.
9. That from which the maker (mâyin) sends forth all this--the sacred verses,
the offerings, the sacrifices, the panaceas, the past, the future, and all that
the Vedas declare--in that the other is bound up through that mâyâ.
10. Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ (art), and the great Lord the Mâyin
(maker); the whole world is filled with what are his members.
11. If a man has discerned him, who being one only, rules over every germ
(cause), in whom all this comes together and comes asunder again, who is the
lord, the bestower of blessing, the adorable god, then he passes for ever into
12. He, the creator and supporter of the gods, Rudra, the great seer, the
lord of all, who saw, Hiranyagarbha being born, may he endow us with good
13. He who is the sovereign of the gods, he in whom all the worlds rest, he
who rules over all two-footed and four-footed beings, to that god let us
sacrifice an oblation.
14. He who has known him who is more subtile than subtile, in the midst of
chaos, creating all things, having many forms, alone enveloping everything, the
happy one (Siva), passes into peace for ever.
15. He also was in time 1 the guardian of this world, the lord of all, hidden
in all beings. In him the Brahmarshis and the deities are united, and he who
knows him cuts the fetters of death asunder.
16. He who knows Siva (the blessed) hidden in all beings, like the subtile
film that rises from out the clarified butter, alone enveloping everything,--he
who knows the god, is freed from all fetters.
17. That god, the maker of all things, the great Self, always dwelling in the
heart of man, is perceived by the heart, the soul, the mind;--they who know it
18. When the light has risen, there is no day, no night, neither existence
nor non-existence; Siva (the blessed) alone is there. That is the eternal, the
adorable light of Savitri,--and the ancient wisdom proceeded thence.
19. No one has grasped him above, or across, or in the middle. There is no
image of him whose name is Great Glory.
20. His form cannot be seen, no one perceives him with the eye. Those who
through heart and mind know him thus abiding in the heart, become immortal.
21. 'Thou art unborn,' with these words some one comes near to thee,
trembling. O Rudra, let thy gracious 1 face protect me for ever!
22. O Rudra! hurt us not in our offspring and descendants, hurt us not in our
own lives, nor in our cows, nor in our horses! Do not slay our men in thy wrath,
for, holding oblations, we call on thee always.
1. In the imperishable and infinite Highest Brahman, wherein the two,
knowledge and ignorance, are hidden, the one, ignorance, perishes 3, the other,
knowledge, is immortal; but he who controls both, knowledge and ignorance, is
2. It is he who, being one only, rules over every germ (cause), over all
forms, and over all germs; it is he who, in the beginning, bears in his thoughts
the wise son, the fiery, whom he wishes to look on 6 while he is born.
3. In that field in which the god, after spreading out one net after another
in various ways, draws it together again, the Lord, the great Self, having
further created the lords, thus carries on his lordship over all.
4. As the car (of the sun) shines, lighting up all quarters, above, below,
and across, thus does that god, the holy, the adorable, being one, rule over all
that has the nature of a germ.
5. He, being one, rules over all and everything, so that the universal germ
ripens its nature, diversifies all natures that can be ripened, and determines
6. Brahma (Hiranyagarbha) knows this, which is hidden in the Upanishads,
which are hidden in the Vedas, as the Brahma-germ. The ancient gods and poets
who knew it, they became it and were immortal.
7. But he who is endowed with qualities, and performs works that are to bear
fruit, and enjoys the reward of whatever he has done, migrates through his own
works, the lord of life, assuming all forms, led by the three Gunas, and
following the three paths.
8. That lower one also, not larger than a thumb, but brilliant like the sun,
who is endowed with personality and thoughts, with the quality of mind and the
quality of body, is seen small even like the point of a goad.
9. That living soul is to be known as part of the hundredth part of the point
of a hair, divided a hundred times, and yet it is to be infinite.
10. It is not woman, it is not man, nor is it neuter; whatever body it takes,
with that it is joined (only).
11. By means of thoughts, touching, seeing, and passions the incarnate Self
assumes successively in various places various forms, in accordance with his
deeds, just as the body grows when food and drink are poured into it.
12. That incarnate Self, according to his own qualities, chooses (assumes)
many shapes, coarse or subtile, and having himself caused his union with them,
he is seen as another and another, through the qualities of his acts, and
through the qualities of his body.
13. He who knows him who has no beginning and no end, in the midst of chaos,
creating all things, having many forms, alone enveloping everything, is freed
from all fetters.
14. Those who know him who is to be grasped by the mind, who is not to be
called the nest (the body), who makes existence and non-existence, the happy one
(Siva), who also creates the elements, they have left the body.
1. Some wise men, deluded, speak of Nature, and others of Time (as the cause
of everything); but it is the greatness of God by which this Brahma-wheel is
made to turn.
2. It is at the command of him who always covers this world, the knower, the
time of time, who assumes qualities and all knowledge, it is at his command that
this work (creation) unfolds itself, which is called earth, water, fire, air,
3. He who, after he has done that work and rested again, and after he has
brought together one essence (the self) with the other (matter), with one, two,
three, or eight, with time also and with the subtile qualities of the mind,
4. Who, after starting the works endowed with (the three) qualities, can
order all things, yet when, in the absence of all these, he has caused the
destruction of the work, goes on, being in truth different (from all he has
5. He is the beginning, producing the causes which unite (the soul with the
body), and, being above the three kinds of time (past, present, future), he is
seen as without parts, after we have first worshipped that adorable god, who has
many forms, and who is the true source (of all things), as dwelling in our own
6. He is beyond all the forms of the tree (of the world) and of time, he is
the other, from whom this world moves round, when one has known him who brings
good and removes evil, the lord of bliss, as dwelling within the self, the
immortal, the support of all.
7. Let us know that highest great lord of lords, the highest deity of
deities, the master of masters, the highest above, as god, the lord of the
world, the adorable.
8. There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him
or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force
9. There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign
of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of
him neither parent nor lord.
10. That only god who spontaneously covered himself, like a spider, with
threads drawn from the first cause (pradhâna), grant us entrance into Brahman.
11. He is the one God, hidden in all beings, all-pervading, the self within
all beings, watching over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the
perceiver, the only one, free from qualities.
12. He is the one ruler of many who (seem to act, but really do) not act; he
makes the one seed manifold. The wise who perceive him within their self, to
them belongs eternal happiness, not to others.
13. He is the eternal among eternals, the thinker among thinkers, who, though
one, fulfils the desires of many. He who has known that cause which is to be
apprehended by Sânkhya (philosophy) and Yoga (religious discipline), he is freed
from all fetters.
14. The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these
lightnings, and much less this fire. When he shines, everything shines after
him; by his light all this is lightened.
15. He is the one bird in the midst of the world; he is also (like) the
fire (of the sun) that has set in the ocean. A man who knows him truly, passes
over death; there is no other path to go.
16. He makes all, he knows all, the self-caused, the knower, the time of time
(destroyer of time), who assumes qualities and knows everything, the master of
nature and of man, the lord of the three qualities (guna), the cause of the
bondage, the existence, and the liberation of the world.
17. He who has become that, he is the immortal, remaining the lord, the
knower, the ever-present guardian of this world, who rules this world for ever,
for no one else is able to rule it.
18. Seeking for freedom I go for refuge to that God who is the light of his
own thoughts, he who first creates Brahman (m.) and delivers the Vedas to him;
19. Who is without parts, without actions, tranquil, without fault, without
taint, the highest bridge to immortality--like a fire that has consumed its
20. Only when men shall roll up the sky like a hide, will there be an end of
misery, unless God has first been known.
21. Through the power of his penance and through the grace of God has the
wise Svetâsvatara truly proclaimed Brahman, the highest and holiest, to the best
of ascetics, as approved by the company of Rishis.
22. This highest mystery in the Vedânta, delivered in a former age, should
not be given to one whose passions have not been subdued, nor to one who is not
a son, or who is not a pupil.
23. If these truths have been told to a high-minded man, who feels the
highest devotion for God, and for his Guru as for God, then they will shine
forth,--then they will shine forth indeed.
Adoration to the Highest Self! Harih, Om!
1. Sukesas 1 Bhâradvâga, and Saivya Satyakâma, and Sauryâyanin Gârgya, and
Kausalya Âsvalâyana, and Bhârgava Vaidarbhi, and Kabandhin Kâtyâyana, these were
devoted to Brahman, firm in Brahman, seeking for the Highest Brahman. They
thought that the venerable Pippalâda could tell them all that, and they
therefore took fuel in their hands (like pupils), and approached him.
2. That Rishi said to them: 'Stay here a year longer, with penance,
abstinence, and faith; then you may ask questions according to your pleasure,
and if we know them, we shall tell you all.'
3. Then Kabandhin Kâtyâyana approached him and asked: 'Sir, from whence may
these creatures be born?'
4. He replied: 'Pragâpati (the lord of creatures) was desirous of creatures (pragâh).
He performed penance', and having performed penance, he produces a pair, matter
(rayi) and spirit (prâna), thinking that they together should produce creatures
for him in many ways.
5. The sun is spirit, matter is the moon. All this, what has body and what
has no body, is matter, and therefore body indeed is matter.
6. Now Âditya, the sun, when he rises, goes toward the East, and thus
receives the Eastern spirits into his rays. And when he illuminates the South,
the West, the North, the Zenith, the Nadir, the intermediate quarters, and
everything, he thus receives all spirits into his rays.
7. Thus he rises, as Vaisvânara, (belonging to all men,) assuming all forms,
as spirit, as fire. This has been said in the following verse:
8. (They knew) him who assumes all forms, the golden 4, who knows all things,
who ascends highest, alone in his splendour, and warms us; the thousand-rayed,
who abides in a hundred places, the spirit of all creatures, the Sun, rises.
9. The year indeed is Pragâpati, and there are two paths thereof, the
Southern and the Northern. Now those who here believe in sacrifices and pious
gifts as work done, gain the moon only as their (future) world, and return
again. Therefore the Rishis who desire offspring, go to the South, and that path
of the Fathers is matter (rayi).
10. But those who have sought the Self by penance, abstinence, faith, and
knowledge, gain by the Northern path Âditya, the sun. This is the home of the
spirits, the immortal, free from danger, the highest. From thence they do not
return, for it is the end. Thus says the Sloka:
11. Some call him the father with five feet (the five seasons), and with
twelve shapes (the twelve months), the giver of rain in the highest half of
heaven; others again say that the sage is placed in the lower half, in the
chariot with seven wheels and six spokes.
12. The month is Pragâpati; its dark half is matter, its bright half spirit.
Therefore some Rishis perform sacrifice in the bright half, others in the other
13. Day and Night are Pragâpati; its day is spirit, its night matter. Those
who unite in love by day waste their spirit, but to unite in love by night is
14. Food is Pragâpati. Hence proceeds seed, and from it these creatures are
15. Those therefore who observe this rule of Pragâpati, produce a pair, and
to them belongs this Brahma-world here. But those in whom dwell penance,
abstinence, and truth,
16. To them belongs that pure Brahma-world, to them, namely, in whom there is
nothing crooked, nothing false, and no guile.'
1. Then Bhârgava Vaidarbhi asked him: 'Sir, How many gods keep what has thus
been created, how many manifest this 2, and who is the best of them?'
2. He replied: 'The ether is that god, the wind, fire, water, earth, speech,
mind, eye, and ear. These, when they have manifested (their power), contend and
say: We (each of us) support this body and keep it.
3. Then Prâna (breath, spirit, life), as the best, said to them: Be not
deceived, I alone, dividing myself fivefold, support this body and keep it.
4. They were incredulous; so he, from pride, did as if he were going out from
above. Thereupon, as he went out, all the others went out, and as he returned,
all the others returned. As bees go out when their queen 1 goes out, and return
when she returns, thus (did) speech, mind, eye, and ear; and, being satisfied,
they praise Prâna, saying:
5. He is Agni (fire), he shines as Sűrya (sun), he is Parganya (rain), the
powerful (Indra), he is Vâyu, (wind), he is the earth, he is matter, he is
God--he is what is and what is not, and what is immortal.
6. As spokes in the nave of a wheel, everything is fixed in Prâna, the verses
of the Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, Sâma-veda, the sacrifice, the Kshatriyas, and the
7. As Pragâpati (lord of creatures) thou movest about in the womb, thou
indeed art born again. To thee, the Prâna, these creatures bring offerings, to
thee who dwellest with the other prânas (the organs of sense).
8. Thou art the best carrier for the Gods, thou art the first offering to the
Fathers. Thou art the true work of the Rishis, of the Atharvângiras.
9. O Prâna, thou art Indra by thy light, thou art Rudra, as a protector; thou
movest in the sky, thou art the sun, the lord of lights.
10. When thou showerest down rain, then, O Prâna, these creatures of thine
are delighted, hoping that there will be food, as much as they desire.
11. Thou art a Vrâtya, O Prâna, the only Rishi, the consumer of everything,
the good lord. We are the givers of what thou hast to consume, thou, O Mâtarisva,
art our father.
12. Make propitious that body of thine which dwells in speech, in the ear, in
the eye, and which pervades the mind; do not go away!
13. All this is in the power of Prâna, whatever exists in the three heavens.
Protect us like a mother her sons, and give us happiness and wisdom.'
1. Then Kausalya Âsvalâyana asked: 'Sir, whence is that Prâna (spirit) born?
How does it come into this body? And how does it abide, after it has divided
itself? How does it go out? How does it support what is without, and how what is
2. He replied: 'You ask questions more difficult, but you are very fond of
Brahman, therefore I shall tell it you.
3. This Prâna (spirit) is born of the Self. Like the shadow thrown on a man,
this (the prâna) is spread out over it (the Brahman) 1. By the work of the mind
does it come into this body.
4. As a king commands officials, saying to them: Rule these villages or
those, so does that Prâna (spirit) dispose the other prânas, each for their
5. The Apâna (the down-breathing) in the organs of excretion and generation;
the Prâna himself dwells in eye and ear, passing through mouth and nose. In the
middle is the Samâna (the on-breathing); it carries what has been sacrificed as
food equally (over the body), and the seven lights proceed from it.
6. The Self 4 is in the heart. There are the 101 arteries, and in each of
them there are a hundred (smaller veins), and for each of these branches there
are 72,000. In these the Vyâna (the back-breathing) moves.
7. Through one of them, the Udâna (the out-breathing) leads (us) upwards to
the good world by good work, to the bad world by bad work, to the world of men
8. The sun rises as the external Prâna, for it assists the Prâna in the eye.
The deity that exists in the earth, is there in support of man's Apâna
(down-breathing). The ether between (sun and earth) is the Samâna
(on-breathing), the air is Vyâna (back-breathing).
9. Light is the Udâna (out-breathing), and therefore he whose light has gone
out comes to a new birth with his senses absorbed in the mind.
10. Whatever his thought (at the time of death) with that he goes back to
Prâna, and the Prâna, united with light, together with the self (the gîvâtmâ)
leads on to the world, as deserved.
11. He who, thus knowing, knows Prâna, his offspring does not perish, and he
becomes immortal. Thus says the Sloka:
12. He who has known the origin, the entry, the place, the fivefold
distribution, and the internal state of the Prâna, obtains immortality, yes,
1. Then Sauryâyanin Gârgya asked: 'Sir, What are they that sleep in this man,
and what are they that are awake in him? What power (deva) is it that sees
dreams? Whose is the happiness? On what do all these depend?'
2. He replied: 'O Gârgya, As all the rays of the sun, when it sets, are
gathered up in that disc of light, and as they, when the sun rises again and
again, come forth, so is all this (all the senses) gathered up in the highest
faculty (deva), the mind. Therefore at that time that man does not hear, see,
smell, taste, touch, he does not speak, he does not take, does not enjoy, does
not evacuate, does not move about. He sleeps, that is what people say.
3. The fires of the prânas are, as it were, awake in that town (the body).
The Apâna is the Gârhapatya fire, the Vyâna the Anvâhâryapakana fire; and
because it is taken out of the Gârhapatya fire, which is fire for taking out,
therefore the Prâna is the Âhavanîya fire.
Now the Apâna is identified with the Gârhapatya fire, no reason being given
except afterwards, when it is said that the Prâna is the Âhavanîya fire, being
taken out of the Gârhapatya, here called p. 280 pranayana, in the same manner as
the prâna proceeds in sleep from the apâna. The Vyâna is identified with the
Dakshinâgni, the Southern fire, because it issues from the heart through an
aperture on the right.
4. Because it carries equally these two oblations, the out-breathing and the
in-breathing, the Samâna is he (the Hotri priest). The mind is the sacrificer,
the Udâna is the reward of the sacrifice, and it leads the sacrificer every day
(in deep sleep) to Brahman.
5. There that god (the mind) enjoys in sleep greatness. What has been seen,
he sees again; what has been heard, he hears again; what has been enjoyed in
different countries and quarters, he enjoys again; what has been seen and not
seen, heard and not heard, enjoyed and not enjoyed, he sees it all; he, being
6. And when he is overpowered by light, then that god sees no dreams, and at
that time that happiness arises in his body.
7. And, O friend, as birds go to a tree to roost, thus all this rests in the
8. The earth and its subtile elements, the water and its subtile elements,
the light and its subtile elements, the air and its subtile elements, the ether
and its subtile elements; the eye and what can be seen, the ear and what can be
heard, the nose and what can be smelled, the taste and what can be tasted, the
skin and what can be touched, the voice and what can be spoken, the hands and
what can be grasped, the feet and what can be walked, the mind and what can be
perceived, intellect (buddhi) and what can be conceived, personality and what
can be personified, thought and what can be thought, light and what can be
lighted up, the Prâna and what is to be supported by it.
9. For he it is who sees, hears, smells, tastes, perceives, conceives, acts,
he whose essence is knowledge, the person, and he dwells in the highest,
10. He who knows that indestructible being, obtains (what is) the highest and
indestructible, he without a shadow, without a body, without colour,
bright--,yes, O friend, he who knows it, becomes all-knowing, becomes all. On
this there is this Sloka:
11. He, O friend, who knows that indestructible being wherein the true
knower, the vital spirits (prânas), together with all the powers (deva), and the
elements rest, he, being all-knowing, has penetrated all.'
1. Then Saivya Satyakâma asked him:--'Sir, if some one among men should
meditate here until death on the syllable Om, what would he obtain by it?'
2. He replied: 'O Satyakâma, the syllable Om (AUM) is the highest and also
the other Brahman; therefore he who knows it arrives by the same means at one of
3. If he meditate on one Mâtrâ (the A), then, being enlightened by that only,
he arrives quickly at the earth. The Rik-verses lead him to the world of men,
and being endowed there with penance, abstinence, and faith, he enjoys
4. If he meditate with two Mâtrâs (A + U) he arrives at the Manas, and is led
up by the Yagus-verses to the sky, to the Soma-world. Having enjoyed greatness
in the Soma-world, he returns again.
5. Again, he who meditates with this syllable AUM of three Mâtrâs, on the
Highest Person, he comes to light and to the sun. And as a snake is freed from
its skin, so is he freed from evil. He is led up by the Sâman-verses to the
Brahma-world; and from him, full of life (Hiranyagarbha, the lord of the
Satya-loka), he learns to see the all-pervading, the Highest Person. And there
are these two Slokas:
6. The three Mâtrâs (A + U + M), if employed separate, and only joined one to
another, are mortal; but in acts, external, internal, or intermediate, if well
performed, the sage trembles not.
7. Through the Rik-verses he arrives at this world, through the Yagus-verses
at the sky, through the Sâman-verses at that which the poets teach,--he arrives
at this by means of the Onkâra; the wise arrives at that which is at rest, free
from decay, from death, from fear,--the Highest.'
1. Then Sukesas Bhâradvâga asked him, saying: 'Sir, Hiranyanâbha, the prince
of Kosalâ 2, came to me and asked this question: Do you know the person of
sixteen parts, O Bhâradvâga? I said to the prince: I do not know him; if I knew
him, how should I not tell you? Surely, he who speaks what is untrue withers
away to the very root; therefore I will not say what is untrue. Then he mounted
his chariot and went away silently. Now I ask you, where is that person?'
2. He replied: 'Friend, that person is here within the body, he in whom these
sixteen parts arise.
3. He reflected: What is it by whose departure I shall depart, and by whose
staying I shall stay?
4. He sent forth (created) Prâna (spirit); from [paragraph continues] Prâna
Sraddhâ (faith), ether, air, light, water, earth, sense, mind, food; from food
came vigour, penance, hymns, sacrifice, the worlds, and in the worlds the name
5. As these flowing rivers 3 that go towards the ocean, when they have
reached the ocean, sink into it, their name and form are broken, and people
speak of the ocean only, exactly thus these sixteen parts of the spectator that
go towards the person (purusha), when they have reached the person, sink into
him, their name and form are broken, and people speak of the person only, and he
becomes without parts and immortal. On this there is this verse:
6. That person who is to be known, he in whom these parts rest, like spokes
in the nave of a wheel, you know him, lest death should hurt you.'
7. Then he (Pippalâda) said to them: 'So far do I know this Highest Brahman,
there is nothing higher than it.'
8. And they praising him, said: 'You, indeed, are our father, you who carry
us from our ignorance to the other shore.'
Adoration to the highest Rishis!
Adoration to the highest Rishis!
Tat sat. Harih, Om!
Source: "The Upanishads" translated by Max Müller 
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AFRICA Fetichism in West Africa; R.H. Nassau * Notes on
the Folklore of the Fjort; R.E. Dennett * Folk Stories from
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* Freher's Process in the Philosophical Work * The Golden
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* Tract of Great Price * Hermetic Museum; A.E. Waite *
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philosophers * On the Philadelphian Gold * Tract on the
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W. King * Babylonian Story of the Deluge and the Epic of
Gilgamish; E.A.W. Budge * The Code of Hammurabi; L.W. King *
Descent Of The Goddess Ishtar Into The Lower World; M.
Jastrow * The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria; T.G.
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Facing Life Fearlessly * On Religion * Why I Am An Agnostic
* Charles Darwin: Voyage of the Beagle; * The Descent of Man
* Origin of Species * TOM PAINE: The Age Of Reason; * An
Essay On Dream * Biblical Blasphemy * Examination Of The
Prophecies; * MARK TWAIN: Letters From The Earth; * The War
Prayer * What Is Man; ATLANTIS IGNATIUS DONNELLY:
Atlantis the Antediluvian World * Ragnarok: The Age of Fire
and Gravel * The Story of Atlantis; W. Scott-Elliot * Vril,
The Power of the Coming Race; E. Bulwer-Lytton AUSTRALIA
K. LANGLOH PARKER: Australian Legendary Tales; * The
Euahlayi Tribe * Native Tribes of the Northern Territory of
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The King James Version Bible * Greek New Testament * Jewish
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and unvoweled * The Vulgate (Latin) Bible BUDDHISM
Buddhism in Tibet; E. Schlaginteweit * Buddhism in
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Buddha, The Word * Dialogues of the Buddha (The
Dîgha-Nikâya); T.W. Rhys Davids * Gleanings In Buddha
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of Zen Buddhism; D.T. Suzuki * Religion of the Samurai; K.
Nukariya * Dhammapada; F. Max Müller * Buddhist Suttas; T.W.
Rhys Davids * Buddhist Mahâyâna Texts; E.B Cowell, Max
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Catechism * The Corpus Hermeticum, G.R.S. Mead * MARTIN
LUTHER: 95 Theses * Three Walls Of The Romanists * Of The
Matters To Be Considered In The Councils * Respecting The
Reformation Of The Christian Estate * Christ's Holy
Sufferings * Enemies of the Cross of Christ * Christ Our
Great High Priest * The Large Catechism * Twofold Use of the
Law & Gospel: Letter & Spirit * Of The Office of
Preaching * Small Catechism * The Parable of the Sower * On
Faith & Coming to Christ * The Wheat & The Tares *
Book of Martyrs, John Foxe * Paradise Lost and Regained,
John Milton * Liturgy of the Reformed Churches of the
Netherlands * Church Order (Reformed Churches of the
Netherlands) * Nicene Creed * Shaker Compendium, F.W. Evans
* Synod of Dordrecht * Gospel of Thomas * Westminster
Shorter Catechism * Westminster Larger Catechism * The
Westminster Confession of Faith CLASSICS AESCHYLUS:
Agamemnon * The Choephori * Eumenides * The Persians *
Prometheus Bound * The Seven Against Thebes * The Suppliants
* The Fables, Aesop * The Age of Fable, Thomas Bulfinch *
Hymn To Demeter * On the Nature of Things, Lucretius *
HESIOD: The Theogony * Works and Days * HOMER AND HOMERICA:
Iliad * Odyssey * The Aethiopis * The Cypria *Fragments of
the Epic Cycle * The Battle of Frogs and Mice * Homeric
Fragments * Contest of Homer and Hesiod * The Homeric Hymns
* The Sack of Ilium * The Little Iliad * The Returns and The
Telegony * OVID: Amores, Ars Amatoria, Remedia Amoris,
Medicamina Faciei Femineae * The Metamorphoses * The
Sayricon, Petronius * PLATO: Charmides, Or Temperance *
Cratylus * Critias * Crito * Euthydemus * Euthyphro *
Gorgias * Ion * Laches * Laws * Lysis * Meno * Parmenides *
Phaedo * Phaedrus * Philebus * Protagoras * Republic *
Seventh Letter * Sophist * Statesman * Symposium *
Theaetetus * Timaeus * Poems Of Sappho * Sibylline Oracles *
VIRGIL: Aeneid * Eclogues * Georgics EGYPT E.A.W.
BUDGE: Egyptian Book of the Dead * History of Creation *
Legend of the Destruction of Mankind * Legend of Horus of
Behutet * Hymn to Osiris and a Legend of the Origin of Horus
* Legend of Ptah Nefer-Hetep and the Princess of Bekhten *
Legend of Ra and Isis ESOTERIC Calls of Enoch *
Principia Discrodia * Temporary Autonomous Zone, Hakim Bey *
Book of the Damned, Charles Fort * Sixth and Seventh Book of
Moses HINDUISM Rig Veda (English, Sanskrit) * The
Upanishads, M. Müller * Atharva-Veda * Samaveda * The Yajur
Veda * Ramayana and Mahabharata, R. Dutt * Bhagavad-Gita *
Laws of Manu * Sanskrit Dictionary * Dharma Sutras * Songs
of Kabîr * Gitanjali, Tagore, W. B. Yeats * A Vedic Reader,
A.A. Macdonell * The Yoga Sutras, Patanjali I CHING I
Ching. J. Legge ISLAM, SUFIISM The Gulistan of Sa'di
* Manual of Hadith * Teachings of Hafiz * Kasîdah of Hâjî
Abdű El-Yezdî, Burton * Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam *
Masanavi of Rumi * Mishkat al-Anwar, al-Ghazzali * Mystics
of Islam, R.A. Nicholson * Qur'an, E.H. Palmer * Qur'an, M.M.
Pickthall * Transliterated Arabic Qur'an * Alchemy of
Happiness, Al-Ghazzali JAINISM Akaranga Sutra * Kalpa
Sutra JUDAISM Reform Judaism-A Centenary Perspective
* Reform Judaism-1885 * Jewish Articles of Faith * The
Columbus Platform: Guiding Principles Of Reform Judaism *
Siphra Dtzenioutha: Book of Concealed Mystery, M.M. Mathers
* Hebraic Literature: Translations from the Talmud,
Midrashim and Kabbala, M.H. Harris * Introduction to The
Kabbalah Unveiled, S.L.M. Mathers * Maimonides: Ani Maamin -
I believe... * Midrash Tanhuma * Studies in Judaism-The
Dogmas of Judaism, Solomon Schechter * Reconstructionist
Judaism-The Thirteen (13) Wants, M. Kaplan MORMONISM
Book of Mormon * Mormon Doctrine & Covenants * Articles
of Faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
* Pearl of Great Price (Mormon) NATIVE AMERICAN Rig
Veda Americanus, D. Brinton * Myths and Legends of
California and the Old Southwest, K.B. Judson * , A.L.
KROEBER: Religion of the Indians of California * Indiam
Myths of South Central California * J. MOONEY: Myths of the
Cherokee * Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee * Cherokee Ball
Play * The Soul of the Indian, C. Eastman * Traditions of
the Hopi, H.R. Voth * DE GAMBOA: The Shepherd And The
Daughter Of The Sun * Viracocha And The Coming Of The Incas
* Death Of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui * The Festival of The Sun
* Three Inca Prayers, P.A. Means * The Code of Handsome
Lake, the Seneca Prophet, A.C. Parker * The Iroquois Book of
Rites, H.E. Hale * Indian Why Stories, F. Linderman * L.
SPENCE: The Myths of Mexico and Peru * The Popul Vuh, L.
Spence * The Dîné: Origin Myths of the Navaho Indians, A.
O'Bryan * Old Indian Legends, Zitkala-Sa * Myths and Legends
of the Sioux, M. L. McLaughlin * Many Swans: Sun Myth of the
North American Indians, A. Lowell * Tales of the North
American Indians, S. Thompson * The Walam Olum * RUTH BUNZEL:
Zuńi Origin Myths * Zuńi Ritual Poetry * Introduction to
Zuń Ceremonialism Ruth * F.H. CUSHING: Outline of Zuńi
Mytho-Sociologic Organization * Zuńi Fetiches * Remarks on
Shamanism * Form * Corn Raising * Clowns, Priests, and
Festivals of the Kâ'-kâ * Creation and the Origin of Corn
* Zuńi Folk Tales SAGAS AND LEGENDS Beowulf
(Anglo-Saxon, English) * The Complete Corpus of Anglo-Saxon
Poetry * The Thousand and One Nights, Burton * Celtic Fairy
Tales, J. Jacobs * AUGUSTA GREGORY Cuchulain of Muirtheme *
Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland * Gods and
Fighting Men * The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries, W.Y.
Evans Wentz * Fairy Legends and Traditions, T.C. Croker *
Irish Fairy Tales, J. Stephens * More Celtic Fairy Tales, J.
Jacobs * Myths and Folklore of Ireland, J. Curtain * Myths
and Legends of the Celtic Race, T. Rolleston * The Welsh
Fairy Book, W. J. Thomas * Britsh Goblins, Wirt Sikes * The
Lay of the Cid * DETROYES: Cliges * Erec et Enide * The High
History of the Holy Graal * The Cattle-Raid of Cooley (Táin
Bó Cúalnge) * Grimm's Household Tales * Heimskringla or
The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, Snorri Sturlson *
Heroic Romances of Ireland, A.H. Leahy * Kalevala (English
and Finnish), Elias Lönnrot * The Thousand and One Nights,
A. Lang * Mabinogion, Charlotte Guest * Le Morte d'Arthur,
Thomas Malory * The Nibelungenlied * The Story of Burnt Njal
* The Volsunga Saga, William Morris and Eirikr Magnusson *
The Poetic Edda * The Prose Edda, Snorri Sturlson * The
Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus * The Shahnama, Firdausi OAHSPE
Oahspe, J.B. Newbrough PACIFIC Polynesian Mythology,
G. Grey * W.D. WESTERVELT: Legends of Maui * Hawaiian
Legends of Ghosts and Ghost-Gods * Hawaiian Legends of Old
Honolulu * Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes * The Kumulipo, A
Hawaiian Creation Chant, Martha W. Beckwith * Maori Religion
and Mythology, E. Shortland PAGANISM, WICCA Aradia,
or the Gospel of the Witches, C. G. Leland * Golden Bough,
James Frazer * Dćmonologie, King James the First * The Key
of Solomon, S.L.M. Mathers * Malleus Maleficarum * Veil of
Isis or Mysteries of the Druids, W.W. Reade * Letters on
Demonology and Witchcraft, Walter Scott * Witch Cult in
Western Europe, Margaret Murray PHILOSOPHY A Treatise
Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, Berkeley * The
Discourse of Rene Descartes, Descartes * EMERSON: An
Address, July 15, 1838 * The American Scholar * The Conduct
of Life * The Conservative * English Traits * Essays *
Lecture On The Times * Literary Ethics * Man The Reformer *
The Method of Nature * Nature; Adresses, and Lectures *
Representative Men * The Transcendalist * Uncollected Prose
* The Young American * The Discourses, Epictetus * Science
of Logic, Hegel * Leviathan, Hobbes * An Enquiry Concerning
Human Understanding, Hume * KANT: The Critique of Judgement
* The Critique of Practical Reason * The Critique of Pure
Reason * Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
* Introduction to the Metaphysic of Morals * The
Metaphysical Elements of Ethics * The Science of Right * The
Monadology, Leibniz * Communist Manifesto, Marx * J.S. MILL:
On Liberty * Representative Government * Utilitarianism *
The Subjection of Women * Thus Spake Zarathustra, Nietzsche
* The Provincial Letters, Pascal * Pensees, Pascal *
THOREAU: Civil Disobedience * Life Without Principle * A
Plea for Captain John Brown * Slavery in Massachusetts *
Walden, or Life in the Woods * Candide, Voltaire *
Vindication of the Rights of Women, Mary Wollstonecraft PIRI
RE'IS Piri Re'is Map SHAMANISM Animism, G.W.
Gilmore * Shamanism in Siberia, M. A. Czaplicka * Shaman,
Saiva and Sufi, R.O. Winstedt SHINTO L.HEARN: In
Ghostly Japan * Japan, An Attempt at Interpretation *
Kwaidan * The Kojiki, B.H. Chamberlain * The Nihongi, W.G.
Ashton * The Yengishiki SIKHISM Shri Guru Granth
Sahib * The Sikh Religion Vol. 1, M.A. MacAuliffe SHAKESPEARE
Complete Plays and Poems of William Shakespeare (Modern and
First Folio versions) TAOISM The Texts of Taoism, J.
Legge * Tao Te Ching, James Legge * T'ai-Shang Kan-Ying
P'ien, Teitaro Suzuki and Paul Carus * Taoist Teachings
Translated from the Book of Lieh-Tzü, L. Giles TAROT
The Pictorial Key to the Tarot, A.E. Waite THEOSOPHY
The Secret Doctrine, H. P. Blavatsky TIMELINE
Timeline: Origin of World Religions, J.B.Hare * Timeline:
Sacred Texts, J.B.Hare WOMEN, GODDESSES Clothed With
The Sun, Anna Bonus Kingsford * The Woman's Bible, Elizabeth
Cady Stanton * Woman and the New Race, Margaret Sanger ZOROASTRIANISM
The Vendîdâd * Pahlavi Texts, E.W. West * Khorda Avesta,
James Darmesteter * Dadestan-i Denig, E.W. West * Menog-i
Khrad, E.W. West * Avesta Fragments, L.H. Mills * Visperad,
L.H. Mills * Yasna, L.H. Mills