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William Saylor:
The Gods as Architects

Guest Writers

 

"He who wonders discovers that this in itself is wonderful"  

- M. C. Escher


Articles by William L. Saylor - Main Menu

I. The Ancient Astronauts (AA) Theory Revisited   >>>>

II. The Gods Meet Men in Prehistory  >>>>

III. The Gods as Architects  >>>> 

IV. The Technology of the Gods  >>>>

All Articles Copyright 2000-2002 William L. Saylor.
All rights reserved.  Reprinted with Permission.


III. The Gods as Architects

by William Saylor

 

Pyramids, Platforms, Dolmens and Mounds

As is well known there are literally hundreds of pyramids of various styles scattered over the Earth, in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Far East, Southeast Asia and South Pacific, and in North and South America. A few of these sites demonstrating the different styles are:

  • Iraq: The reconstructed ziggurat-pyramid at Ur, in ancient Sumer.
      
  • Egypt: The step pyramid at Saqqara.
      
  • Egypt: The smooth-walled pyramids at Giza. Hancock and Bauval (1996) suggest that the ‘ground plan’ of the three great pyramids was physically established in 10,500 bc, but that the pyramids were built around 2,500 bc. This supports the notion that the pyramid base rock with its underground chamber was an early AA terminal, and the Sphinx was the associated landmark easily identified from space.
      
  • Mexico: The highly decorated step pyramids at Chichen-Itza, Monte Alban, and elsewhere. In the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque, a shaft runs from the tomb up to the temple floor, similar to some of the Egyptian pyramids. There was initially a 40 ft "comb" on the top. Was this an additional identifying marker?
      
  • Mexico: The unusual elliptical pyramid at Uxmal.
      
  • Mexico: The huge, unexcavated pyramid at Cholula (Fig 4-1), in the shadow of the volcano, Popocatepetl ("El Popo"). Its ancient name, Tlachihualtepetl, means "man-made mountain". On Quetzalcoatl’s pilgrimage his first stop was Cholula, which means ‘the place of flight’ in Nahuatl. The huge "Piramide Tepanapa", 200 ft high and 1300 ft on a side, is the largest ancient pyramid in the Americas, and possibly the largest in the world. The earliest construction has been traced to 200 bc. It was covered with dirt to hide it from the invading Spaniards and a small shrine was placed at the top, which the Spanish replaced with a church (Fig 4-1). The small portion which has been excavated reveals remarkable masonry (Fig 4-2).


Fig 4-1


Fig 4-2

  • Mexico: Tres Zapotes, an Olmec site (1300 – 400 bc), was the first adobe-brick pyramid site in Mesoamerica. (Mystery buffs please note: Before the arrival of Cortez ALL of the Olmec sites were destroyed, except El Tijin, which had been abandoned!)
      

  • Mexico: The truncated cone pyramid of Cuicuilco. In 1917 Manuel Gamio, excavating off the road from Mexico City to Cuernavaca, found an overgrown hill called ‘Cuicuilco’ enveloped by pre-historic lava streams. It turned out to be an enormous ancient pyramid or truncated cone with four galleries and central staircase. It is one of the few remaining round stepped pyramids. The base is 370 ft and it is about 60 ft high now, although it was originally much higher. Archeologist Paul Heinrich reports the age to be 800 to 600 bc, not 6000 bc as reported by others. (Miller, 2000)
      
  • Mexico: The beautiful miniature pyramid at Cecilia, D.F.
      
  • Mexico: The platform-pyramids at Teotenango, Tenayaca, and Tula.
      
  • Mexico: The multi-platform style of the Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan. In his discussion of Teotihuacan, John Michel (1995) quotes another researcher: "During the 1970s Hugh Harleston, Jr …established that ‘the basic unit of measurement at Teotihuacan was 1.0594 meters, the same unit which represents the ‘Jewish rod’ of 3.4757 ft., the same unit which represents the width of the Stonehenge lintels, a six-millionth part of the earth’s polar radius…’"
      
  • Guatemala:  The huge pre-classic (150 bc-150 ad) Mayan site of El Mirador with its dozens of pyramids, including the Tigre Pyramid rising 18 stories high, probably the largest pyramid ever built by the Maya.
      
  • Peru: Moche Temple of the Sun. The earlier Moche built this temple-pyramid style pyramid from 140 million adobe bricks.
      
  • Peru: Sipan Pyramid. This Moche pyramid-tomb near the town of Sipan proves that some of the early SA pyramids were tombs, as in Egypt and Mesoamerica.
      
  • Peru: Pyramids of Cahuachi. A ceremonial site comprised of six pyramids, the highest being about 70 ft, overlooking a walled court of 4050 sq yards. (Morrison, 1988). Hadingham (1987) mentions that the "great temple" was a stepped pyramid. He quotes Helaine Silverman’s estimate that the period of most activity at Cahuachi was short lived, about 200 years, and the site was mysteriously abandoned around 200 ad, along with other several other important sites.
      
  • Peru: The pyramids of Tucume. "Covering over 540 acres and including 26 major pyramids as well as myriad smaller structures…first built around 1100 ad by people of the Lambayeque culture…" The largest of the adobe brick pyramids, Huaca Larga, is 2300 ft long, 910 ft wide and 65 ft high. (Heyerdahl, 1995). Robert Schoch (1999) writes, "The largest of the pyramids, called Tucume…was only a little over 200 feet high, but it contained one-third more volume that the Pyramid of Khufu at Giza."
      
  • Peru: Huaca del Sol, Moche Valley. This is a 120 ft high pyramid on the Peruvian north coast. The 1.5 million mud brick pyramid is the largest man-made mound in SA. Facing Huaca del Sol across the main plaza was a smaller mound, Huaca del Luna. The site lies at the foot of Cerro Blanco, an obvious landmark from space for this ceremonial/feeding center (Hadingham, 1987)
      
  • Bolivia: The Akapana platform-pyramid at Tiahuanaco. The Bolivian archaeologists date the site to 1580 bc. The Akapana measures 688 ft on a side and is 49 ft high. "The earthen interior was shaped like a stepped pyramid and faced with fitted stones." (Demetrio, 1983)
      
  • Java: Cani Sukuh pyramid, resembling the Mexico pyramid style (Childress, 1996). Who carried this style across the Pacific?
      
  • Ryukyu Islands: The Yonaguni underwater pyramid. This unique step-pyramid-platform, 240 ft long and 90 ft high, resting 75 ft underwater, has been dated to 8000 bc! (Dopatka, 2000)
      
  • China: The White Pyramid, near Xi’an. Hartwig Hausdorf (1998) says there are 90-100 pyramids in China, near Xi’an, the tallest being about 200 ft. Xi’an incidentally is the site of the amazing ‘Terracotta Army’ of Qin Shi Huang.
      
  • Polynesia: "modest pyramids" at Tongatabu; a temple-pyramid on Tahiti; the Langi stepped pyramid-platform at Tauhala (a large stone, 24 x 7 ft and weighing 30-40 tons, is in the wall).
      
  • Ancient pyramids are also found on Samoa and Java. (Childress, 1996)
      
  • Greece: Pyramid of Hellinikon, near Argos. The author writes, "…built in the style reminiscent of cyclopean walls…" Its base is 15 x 13 meters, and the tallest wall still standing it only 14 ft. From the photos it probably would have stood about 10 meters high when completed. Thermoluminescent analysis of the pyramid in 1997 yielded a construction date of 2720 bc, older than the archeologists state for the Cheops pyramid! (Tsoukalow, 2000)
      
  • Canary Islands: The pyramids of Guimar. Thor Heyerdahl writes, "…They were painstakingly built step-pyramids, constructed according to similar principles as those of Mexico, Peru, and ancient Mesopotamia."
      
  • United States: Monk’s pyramid-mound at Cahokia, Illinois, a mud brick platform-pyramid. A large stone wall or room has recently been discovered inside the mound, but has not been excavated as of Oct 2000.
  • Yonaguni:  Situated between the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea, about 300 miles from Okinawa, is the island of Yonaguni-Jima. Off it's coast is a huge apparently manmade (god-made?) monument about 100 ft below the surface. Its a platform pyramid 600 ft wide, 90 ft high constructed of precisely hewn megalithic stones. The pyramid, apparently a part of a ceremonial center, has been dated to 8000 bc, 5000 years before the oldest pyramid in Egypt!

The best clue we have that the gods orchestrated the pyramid building is the tale of Gudea who built the temple-ziggurat at Lagash (apparently the god Kothar-Hasis
was the only one authorized to design the temples. He was likely the same "Greek divine craftsman Hepahaestus" who built the temple-abode of Zeus, and the Egyptian god Thoth). For Ninurta’s temple at Lagash Gudea was given elaborate and continuous instructions by the gods. He built a seven-tier ziggurat, named Eninnu, referring to a ingenious tablet which gave a plan view and 7 scales – one for each tier (Zecharia Sitchin describes this story in detail in his 1976 and 1993 books. See also figs 748, 749 of Pritchard, 1969).

Zecharia Sitchin makes an interesting connection with his statement that the three great pyramids of Giza are at 52 degree, but the later pyramids collapsed at this angle and were built at 43.5 degrees, and he maintains that the pyramids at Teotihuacan are also at 43.5 degrees. Furthermore "although the 2nd pyramid at Giza is shorter than the Great Pyramid, their peaks are at the same height above sea level because the 2nd one is built on higher ground; the same holds true at Teotihuacan where the smaller Pyramid of the Moon is built on ground some thirty feet higher than the Sun Pyramid, giving their peaks equal height above sea level." We should note here also that both the Great Pyramid at Giza and the Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacan have a descending shaft burrowed into the bedrock on which the pyramids were built.

One of the problems in choosing a landing site for a vertical-lift aircraft is the dust and dirt generated by the exhaust. Before pyramids were built this problem was apparently minimized by landing on large rock outcrops. 
The problem is better solved however by landing on step pyramids, or step platforms, since the tiers at each level would effectively deflect the exhaust (Fig 4-3). 

Fig 4-3
Deflection of rocket exhaust 
by stepped pyramid design

Fig 4-4
Zoser pyramid in Egypt

The ziggurats at Urand Babylon, the Zoser pyramid in Egypt (Fig 4-4), the Canary Island pyramids, and most of the Mexican pyramids and South American pyramids, employed this design.

Interestingly some of the Egyptian pyramids have multiple chambers which seem to have been built over periods of time, e.g. Sneferu’s pyramid has an underground chamber, a 2nd chamber near the surface, and a 3rd chamber up in the pyramid, as if the site was in use before, possibly long before, the pyramid was erected, probably as a landing and feeding site. The chambers of the Great Pyramid also follow this pattern; the 1st one being deep underground, then the 2nd (‘Queens’) chamber built low in the center of the pyramid, and the 3rd (‘Kings’) chamber higher up. This pattern suggests that one goal was to provide continuous and increasing degrees of protection from above.

The pyramids of Mycerinus, Unas, Teti and most others also had underground chambers. In fact the pyramids of Mycerinus and some others did not even have chambers in the pyramids themselves - all chambers were underground! Obviously this design would make excellent bomb shelters, and I suspect that the large pyramids, and any hapless occupants, if they had been located at "ground zero" at Hiroshima or Nagasaki, would have survived. The pyramidal shape would have effectively deflected most of the blast wave and fireball, and the neutron and gamma-ray pulses would have been attenuated to negligible levels by the stone mass.

Zecharia Sitchin (1985) offers a rather fantastic function for the pyramids of Giza: that they were built by the Nefilim, not by mankind, as part of a guidance grid for "the Tilmun spaceport". He develops a theory that ties the pyramids and the "sacred cities" into a guidance and communication grid for two approach corridors, one west-to-east over Mesopotamia and one west-to-east over the Sinai. "Built by the gods (Anunnaki), they were landmarks and beacons for the spaceport in Sinai, and existed long before kingship began in Egypt.
" The great pyramid was "…the mountain by which Utu ascends…".

Regarding the Giza pyramids some scholars argue that the stones were pulled up long ramps on sleds, referencing the familiar painting from the tomb of Djehutihotepe of 204 workers moving his 60 ton statute on a sled (Fig 4-5). But this only proves that this statue was moved on a sled. I am not aware of a single image or inscription which depict the methods used to construct the great pyramids. We simply do not know how it was done.

moving a statue

Fig 4-5

Incidentally Mark and Richard Wells (2000) have discovered an amazing similarity in the alignment and size of the three stars in Orion's belt and the alignment and size of the major pyramids at Giza, Egypt; Xi'an, China; Teotihuacan, Mexico. Don't miss their essay.

So we have pyramids of heights ranging from 30 ft to over 400 ft, lengths from 100 ft to 2300 ft; some with inner chambers and some solid throughout; stepped and smooth walled; square, round and elliptical bases; stone, mud and adobe brick construction; highly decorated or plain; some topped with small buildings.

From these various styles, sizes, and composition I think we can conclude that the pyramids had several functions: burial sites, landmarks, landing sites, feeding stations, bomb shelters, and ceremonial sites; and there is evidence that many of them served several functions simultaneously. But one thing seems certain – the pyramids, platforms and mounds around the world were places where the gods and mankind came together.

 

The Megalith Builders

 

Yahweh questions Job:

“Let me ask thee, and answer thou me: Where wast thou, when the Earth’s foundation I laid out? Say, if thou knowest science: Who hath measured it, that it be known? Or who hath stretched a cord upon it? By what were its platforms wrought? (my emphasis) Who hath cast its Stone of Corners?”

(Job 38:3-8 as translated by Sitchin, 1998)

The literature contains many references to the enormous hewn stones which were used in ancient construction around the world, a few of which are as follows (See also Cohane, 1977, chapter 12):

  • Egypt, The Great Pyramid of Cheops: “…consists of 2.5 million stones 1 to 40 tons each. It takes a 300 hp diesel engine and hydraulic lifter to pick up a 7 ton granite slab”.
      
  • “The biggest blocks at Giza weighed 200 tons. The biggest blocks at Tiahuanaco weighed 400 tons…
      
  • Egypt, Zoser pyramid complex: “Mummified bulls were found in stone coffins weighing 80 tons.”

  • Egypt, Aswan quarry: “The ‘Unfinished Obelisk’ near Aswan still lies in its quarry, detached on all but its lower side. If it had been extracted, it would have been 41.75 meters (137 ft) high with a base about 4.2 meters on each side. The total weight would have been about 1168 tons, heavier than any piece of stone ever handled by the ancient Egyptians”.
      
  • Egypt, Temple of Hatshepsut at Karnak: “…one of the largest standing obelisks remaining at Karnak. It is 29.5 meters (96.7 ft) high and weighs 323 tons.”
      
  • Egypt, Karnak: “The seventh and last of the Karnak obelisks…is the largest surviving obelisk, with a height of 36 meters.” This 118 ft obelisk was removed to Rome in antiquity and now stands in the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano. It was shortened to 32 meters (105 ft) when it was re-erected in the sixteenth century, and its current weight is 455 tons.” (Fig 5-2).

Fig 5-2
Obelisk at Karnak

  • Egypt, Luxor: “Ramesses II placed two obelisks before the Luxor Temple, only one of which remains, the other was taken to Paris. The Luxor obelisk is made of red granite; it is 25 meters (82 ft) high and weighs 254 tons.”
      
  • Bolivia, Tiahuanaco and Puma-Punku: “…stones weigh up to 400 tons…”
    “…stones up to 100 tons each, were quarried 10 kilometers away.”
    “One block of red sandstone in the platform of the Puma Punku weighs 131 tons. It had been hauled 10 kilometers.”
      
  • England, Stonehenge: “…160 stones, 4-37 tons each.” “The ‘sarsen’ stones were moved 20 miles from Avebury, some weighing 30 tons and standing 30 ft high.”
      
  • England, Avebury: “There were two hundred or so stones in the circles, the largest of which were over 55 tons, to be dragged a mile or more from the Downs.”
      
  • Ireland, Dublin: “…The capstone of the megalithic tomb at Brenanstown, weighing approximately 67 tons.”
      
  • Mexico, La Venta:  “…some of the (Olmec) stone “portrait” heads weighing as much as 25 tons.”  “Stones weighing as much as 30 tons were found at Mitla.”
  • Mexico, Quirigua:  “…the largest Mayan stele, at Quirigua, measuring 10.7 x 1.5 x 1.27 meters, and weighing 65 tons.”  “the site of Quirigua is where the largest monolith in the Maya world stands. It is the Stella E, weighing 65 tons and standing 35 feet high. It was quarried about three miles away.”
      
  • Peru, Sacsahuaman:  “…a stone 27 ft high and weighing over 300 tons.”
      
  • Peru, Ollantaytambo:  Regarding the six colossal monoliths at Ollantaytambo, “The gigantic stone blocks are from eleven to almost fourteen feet high, average six or more feet in width, and vary in thickness from about three to over six feet.” “…some weighing up to 250 tons.” “…the giant stone blocks were quarried on the mountain on the opposite side of the valley. The heavy blocks of red granite, after they had been quarried, hewed, and shaped, were then transported from the mountainside, across two streams, and up to the Ollantaytambo site, carefully raised, put precisely in place, and finally fused together.” (Sitchin, 1990). (Notice the phrase "fused together".)
      
  • Lebanon, Baalbek:  “…the colossal stones, the Trilithon, each weighs about 1100 tons; it is a weight no modern piece of equipment can even come close to lifting and moving.” (Fig 5-3).  “None of today’s machines could move these megaliths. The largest block is 21 x 4 x 4 meters and the two others are 19.50 x 4 x 4 meters. Together they are 60 meter in length and 960 cu meters in volume. The blocks were quarried 400 meters distant."
  •  

Fig 5-3
Trilithon at Baalbek

“The first of these blocks to the right (the Trilithon) measures 65’ in length, the second 64’10”, the third 63’2”. They were all 14’ 6 in height and 12’ in thickness”.

“…the stone in the quarry, Hajar-el-Hibla ("stone of the pregnant woman") is 69’ long, 16’ wide, and 13’10” high…this enormous stone weighs about 1000 tons” (Fig 5-4). Apparently this is the largest construction stone in the world. Click here for excellent photos of the Baalbek stones.

Fig 5-4. Hajar-el-Hibla at Baalbek

  • Israel, Jerusalem, The Temple Mount: “The stones were cut with such precision that no mortar was needed to fit them together. Some of these ashlars (columns) are as much as 35 feet long and weigh up to 70 tons.” “The Royal Stoa at the southern end of the mount was built in the shape of a basilica with four rows of 40 columns each, each 50 feet high…would weigh about 85 tons each.” “about 60 feet north of Wilson’s Arch…there are four blocks 11 feet high, one of which is 42 feet long and 14 feet thick, giving an estimated weight of 1,200,000 pounds…”
      

  • France, Carnac:  “…the 650 foot ‘long mound’ (Er-Grah), and its relationship to the Grand Menhir monolith, 65 feet tall and weighing 350 tons (now fallen)…”
      
  • Malta:  “At Tarxien there are three temples and one Hal-Saflieni, a rock-cut hypogeum. The temples incorporate stone blocks weighing up to 24 tons each.”
      
  • Greece, Mycenae, the ‘Treasury of Atreus’:  “One or the lintels over the entrance door measures 9x5x1.2, with an estimated weight of 120 tons.”  
    “…it is roofed by two enormous slabs, beautifully cut and polished, of which the inner one measure 3’9” in thickness, and 27.5’ in length on its lower and 29’ on its upper surface; its breadth is 17’, and it is computed that it weighs approximately 300,000 English pounds.”
      
  • Easter Island, Rapa Nui: Of the 300 standing statues the highest is 65 ft; of the 200 unfinished statues in the quarry, one would have been 164 ft high.

 

Today, with high strength steel, we are able to move heavy objects on steel wheels, e.g. a 200 ton autoclave was moved 750 miles over US western roads on a rig having 112 wheels and powered by two large diesel tractors. However some things are too big to be moved on wheels, and instead steel rollers are used. The 198-foot-high Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was moved about a half mile during 1999. It weights well over 1000 tons. To move the lighthouse a compacted gravel road was built, on which large steel plates were placed. Steel rails were then set on the road plates in the direction of the move. To accomplish the move steel roller “dollies” were placed on the rails and were driven by powerful hydraulic rams. A total of 400 tons of steel was used directly under the light for support. The light would be moved a few feet and then the plates and rails behind it would be unbolted and moved to the front.

Kiloton objects can also be moved on “tank tracks” which are essentially steel rollers running on steel tracks.

Also steel cranes have been built which can lift several hundred tons. A New York engineering corporation has a huge hydraulic crane which can lift 500 tons, which is used to lift smaller cranes to the tops of buildings under construction. NASA constructed a crane having a lifting capacity of 430 tons, which is used to lift the shuttle during attachment to the fuel tanks.

Its been suggested that the huge stones in place at ancient megalithic sites were moved around on wooden rollers. I think these authors are not aware of the relative strength of wood and steel. While a steel T-beam, mounted vertically with both ends fixed, can support a load of about 100 tons, a 10 inch diameter wood beam of the same length can only support about 10 tons. And if the wood beam is laid down so that the load is cross-grain rather than end-on, it will splinter under a much smaller load. Furthermore even if they don't splinter they will deform under the load and will slide instead of roll; this happened when 20 people tried to move a replica of one of the statues on Easter Island, and it only weighed 9 tons! So can we really imagine a group of prehistoric people sliding the 1000 ton blocks at Baalbek? Some Egyptologists suggest that the huge obelisks were moved on wooden rollers but not a single one has ever been found. Clearly it’s just nonsense to maintain that these stones were moved on wooden rollers.

So, when we consider the kiloton stones used at ancient megalithic sites, especially the monsters at Baalbek, I see three possibilities:

The first is that a technology comparable to our own existed at that time, employing high strength metal alloys, hydraulics and powerful engines. However, such a technology would involve the use of many materials, including gold and ceramics, which would last many millennia, and I am not aware of any reports of discoveries of any such artifacts. Additionally, since this technology existed all over the Earth, this possibility requires the difficult assumption that the members of this entire civilization disappeared, or at least “forgot” the technology, at about the same time, or in a worldwide conspiracy, disposed of all of the tools. This scenario seems highly unlikely.

There are a few references to a second possibility which take us into the psi world - that the stones were moved by beings having the ability to control the local gravitational field:

  • Giza, Egypt: “Then said Pharaoh, ‘Where lies the papyrus on which Imhotep wrote the words of power that went to the building of the pyramid for Zoser, yes and for that of Seneferu my father also…The words of power can be found and spoken by none but he-and if he speaks them three great pyramids shall rise at Giza and stand there forever. But if he speaks them not, all that you build, and your son builds and your son’s son after him shall fall and crumble away and become as the sands of the desert.’”(Green, 1967). At his "Giza Oracle" site Patrick Cooke presents a compelling argument that the Great Pyramid was not built by ancient Egyptians.
      
  • Uxmal, Mexico: “…construction work was easy for them…all they had to do was whistle and the heavy rocks would move into place.”
      
  • Tiahuanaco, Bolivia: “…(the stones were) carried through the air to the sound of a trumpet”.
      
  • Giza, Egypt: “…a magician was said to have raised into the air a huge vault of stone 200 cubits long and 50 cubits broad”. (Hancock, 1995).

However with our current level of technology, ideas concerning anti-gravity and levitation take us into the realm of the supernatural, and so are out-of-bounds in these pages.

The third possibility is that aircraft and cables were available at that time which had the power and strength to lift and move the stones.

Of course we do not know for sure how these incredibly heavy stones were quarried, moved, and assembled, and short of a revelation, will likely never know. But we do know that even the heaviest construction today is not done with kiloton stones; it’s difficult, slow and expensive. Logically the only reason for the ancients to build with such huge stones is because it was easy for them to do so.

Consider Baalbek in Lebanon where we find a huge platform which underlies, and predates, the ruins of the magnificent Roman temple of Jupiter. It contains the largest stones ever used in construction. How was it built? And by whom?

Here are some clues:

- Michel Alouf (1999) discusses the many theories concerning the builders of the pre-roman portions of the site. He came to the conclusion that it was the temple Baalath built by Solomon, based on the following biblical passage (I Kings, IX; 17-19):

“And Solomon built Gezer and Beth-Horon, the lower, and Baalath and Tadmor (Palmyra) in the wilderness, in the land, and all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for his chariots, and cities for his horsemen, and that which Solomon desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion.”

- Childress (2000) mentions the Kebra Negast, the spiritual guide of the Ethiopians, which says that Solomon had a flying vehicle; also that there are hilltops in Pakistan and Iran where Solomon is believed to have landed.

- By the tradition of the ancient Jews, Jehovah was not the only god in the universe, he was the “only god of this particular people”; and although by the act of the covenant the Israelites had committed themselves to the rule of Jehovah’s law, King Solomon (950 bc) had permitted the worship, apparently even in Jerusalem, of a rival god, Baal, whose main temple was at Baalbek (Baalath).

- Near the Golden Gate (Jerusalem) is a small mosque, the “Kurst Suleiman”. Here legend tells us that, “King Solomon sat watching the Jann and Genii laboring to build his great monuments in Jerusalem, Baalbek, and Palmyra.” (Cornfeld,1972) (Jann were a type of Persian Genii, or "Genius", who had the annoying habit of stealing cows – to eat, I suppose).

- Throughout the ancient Near East we find images of one or more people flying in “winged discs”. And we find “genie”, also called “bird-men” by scholars, who are represented as powerful humans with wings (Fig 5-5), and sometimes with the face of an Eagle, and called "eagle-men". Virginia Marin (www.Suite101.com) writes that Genie, or geniuses, were “…all-powerful. They had great natural and inventive ability. They were smart and possessed great mental capacity…” 

Fig 5-5

I conclude this page by speculating that the stones were moved by being suspended from powerful aircraft operated by the AA “geniuses”.

Puedo estar loco, but the stones are there !

 

 

Master Masons

Yahweh questions Job: 

“Let me ask thee, and answer thou me: Where wast thou, when the Earth’s foundation I laid out? Say, if thou knowest science: Who hath measured it, that it be known? Or who hath stretched a cord upon it? By what were its platforms wrought? Who hath cast its Stone of Corners?” (my emphasis)

(Job 38:3-8 as translated by Sitchin, 1998)

A unique characteristic of many of the megalithic sites is the polygonal stones which were used, the “Stone of Corners”. At Sacsahuaman, above Cuzco, Peru there is the stone of Hatun Rumiyoc, a huge polygonal stone with 12 corners, which interlocks perfectly with adjacent stones. Polygonal stonework was used at several sites in Peru (Figs 6-1,2 ), Greece (Fig 6-3), Lebanon (Fig 6-4), Turkey, Egypt and Bolivia, and Easter Island, among others. Also near the base of the Cheops Pyramid.

Polygonal Masonry

PERU

Delphi, Greece   Baalbek, Lebanon
Fig 6-1 Fig 6-2 Fig 6-3 Fig 6-4

In addition to being exquisitely hewn and fitted, some of the stones were actually fused together. I have examined the fused joints in the Coricancha in Cuzco (Fig 6-5, sometimes spelled Koricancha, which in Quechua means "the corral of gold"), at Ollantaytambo in Peru, inside the Great Pyramid of Egypt (Fig 6-6) (I was astonished at these joints), and at Delphi in Greece. Regarding Ollantaytambo Sitchin (1990) writes that the gigantic blocks were “…carefully raised, put precisely in place, and finally fused together.”

Fused Masonry


Fig 6-5
Coricancha, Peru


Fig 6-6
Great Pyramid, Egypt

Another skill of the master mason was the use of single blocks carved as corners, in Egypt (Fig 6-7), and Peru, among others (see also Zink, 1979).

Fig 6-7
One-piece corner

So let's speculate about the technique of the master masons. I’m inclined to think that the shaping and fusing of the polygonal stones might have been accomplished as follows: Two irregular stones are leaned against each other (Fig. 6-8a). A high temperature beam (acetylene or electric torch, laser, ion beam?) is passed back and forth across the contact point A of the stones, resulting in the first fused joint (b); a third stone is placed on top of the first two and high temperature shaving is performed at the contact points B and C (c), resulting in three fused joints (d).

Fig 6-8
 Illustrating the joining and fusing of polygonal stones

This scenario of course requires that we accept that the builders of these ancient, and mostly prehistoric, structures could easily pick up kiloton stones and place them on top of each other and could produce a beam sufficiently hot to fuse them together. I think they could.

 

Desert Artists

 

"Reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled" 

– Richard Feynman

 

"Only within recent years, since the development of universal communications allowed us to compare the antiquities of our own countries with those of others, have we been able to see the extent of the vast ruin within which we all live. If we ignore all alterations to the landscape arising within the last three thousand years and consider the world as it must have looked in prehistoric times, the pattern that emerges is one so incompatible with our idea of civilization that it is easy entirely to miss its significance. For what we find is this: A great scientific instrument lies sprawled over the entire surface of the globe. At some period, thousands of years ago, almost every corner of the world was visited by people with a particular task to accomplish. With the help of some remarkable power, by which they could cut and raise enormous blocks of stone, these men created vast astronomical instruments, circles of erect pillars, pyramids, underground tunnels, cyclopean stone platforms, all linked together by a network of tracks and alignments, whose course from horizon to horizon was marked by stones, mounds and earthworks." 

- John Michell(1995)

In 1975 I flew over the Nazca plain in Peru, since the figures and patterns can only be recognized from the air, along with a small intrepid group of fellow mystery-mongers.

For me the Nazca lines represent the most persuasive piece of physical evidence in support of the Ancient Astronaut (AA) hypothesis. Although hundreds of writers have generated thousands of pages about the lines and figures, I have not been able to find a sensible explanation of how they were made, or by whom, or for what purpose. It seems obvious that the lines were made from the air. They could have been used as landmarks to be seen from space, or perhaps the AA’s were simply venting their artistic impulse on a convenient giant "etch-a-sketch"; however what I feel is most likely is that they used the Nazca plain to test and calibrate the instrument which they used throughout South America, and perhaps elsewhere on Earth, to delineate "roads" and radial "ceques" linking important sites. I think that the lines were probably created by using an instrument which could sweep away shallow paths of varying widths. I think "the sweeper" was probably something as simple as a high-pressure water stream operating in much the same way as we use a garden hose to wash gravel from our driveways. Certainly, with the Nazca plain bordering on the sea, there would have been a plentiful water supply.

Some of the less precise drawings suggest that the sweeper might have been a gimbaled device which was guided by hand, similar to the machine-gun mounts on old bombers; however the great precision of many of the figures suggests that it more likely was a computerized device which used pre-stored images, such as modern computer driven routers. For these drawings the aircraft would have had to hover quite stably.

Here's how I think they were made:

The 2800 foot long "Needle and Thread" drawing (Fig 3-1, adapted from Discover Magazine, December 2000) begins at the bottom of the figure as a wide beam; the beam is focused to a line as it moves up the "needle"; the artist then uses a oscillatory motion to delineate the borders of a plateau; and ends up drawing a spiral, a common motif at ancient sites (perhaps that’s his signature telling us he is from the galaxy, which also happens to have the shape of a gigantic spiral!)

 

 

Fig 3-1. "Needle and Thread" Image, Nazca, Peru

Although most of the figures were simply outlined with narrow lines, the variable width feature of the sweeper, as one can also do with the nozzle of a water hose, permitted the drawing of "filled-in" figures.

The 140 foot long spider (Fig3-2) is one of the best known Nazca figures. The lines which extend from the rightmost hind leg of the spider establish that the drawing begins at this point. The entrance line, the parallel line to the right, started with a broad beam which was focused to a line, and the hindquarters of the insect were drawn first.

 

Fig 3-2. The "Spider"

 

Most of the other animal figures were drawn in this same manner, with an entrance line, an continuous line sketch of the animal, and an exit line parallel to the entrance line. In Fig 3-3 the entrance-exit line-pair join the "hummingbird" at the beak.

 

Fig 3-3. The "Hummingbird"

 

The "Trident of Paracas", a 600 ft high drawing over the bay of Paracas demonstrates that the beam power of the sweeper could be adjusted to provide a much deeper excavation than was used elsewhere; also the furrows of the spiral figure at Nazca were reported to be "about a foot deep". Incidentally the Trident is the largest petroglyph in south America. Zecharia Sitchin (1990) makes a rather convincing argument that the Trident of Paracas was the symbol of the Sumerian god Adad, or ISH.KUR ("He of the far mountains") who was in charge of mining in SA. His other epithet was ZABAR DIB.BA ("He who bronze obtains and divides")

Apparently the AA’s sweeper helped the Incas create their remarkable 25,000 mile "road" system. Hadingham (1987) relates that "Along the north coast…several sections of Inca roads run for 25 miles or more with scarcely any visible deviation. The major coastal artery, in particular, often ignores minor geographic obstacles, passing straight over rocky hills rather than curving around them."

For other references on the Nazca lines see Isbella (1978), McIntyre (1978), Hadingham (1987), Morrison (1988), Von Daniken (1998)

Although the Nazca lines are the most famous, similar lines have been reported in Bolivia, the USA, Chile, and as "ley" lines in Great Britain.

Other huge ground drawings can be found on the 2000 ft high Atacama Desert in Chili, about 600 mile south of Nazca. The desert is literally covered, for many miles, with "geo-glyphs". Together they constitute the "zoo of the Atacama", immense stylized figures.

Traveling another 250 miles south, in the region of Tarapaca province, on a mountain called Cerro Unitas, we find the "giant", a huge (600 ft) ground figure with "antennae" radiating from the side and top of it's head. The drawing "cannot be recognized from the ground since it wraps up over the crest of the mountain." (Clarke, 1982). This I take to be hard evidence that these figures were created from the air. It’s location next to the "lone mountain" also suggests that it was a beacon. It is the largest known ground drawing of a stylized figure.

Zecharia Sitchin (1980) writes about the 30th parallel, reporting that on this line lie the Tilmun site and the "sacred cites" of Giza-Heliopolis (Egypt), Eridu (Mesopotamia), Persepolis (Persia), Harappa (Indus valley), and Lhasa (Tibet). He further suggests that "Indeed, were we to study all these sites, all of Earth would probably be encompassed."

The Nazca desert - a testing and calibration site for the devices used to mark the Earth? by AAs? from the air? I think so!

 


Articles by William L. Saylor - Main Menu

I. The Ancient Astronauts (AA) Theory Revisited   >>>>

II. The Gods Meet Men in Prehistory  >>>>

III. The Gods as Architects  >>>> 

IV. The Technology of the Gods  >>>>


All Articles Copyright 2000-2002 William L. Saylor.
All rights reserved.  Reprinted with Permission.


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